CAWST has put out a complete manual on how to design, install, operate and maintain a biosand filter. This is a very good manual with specific instructions, pictures, and diagrams. It is basically everything you need to design and operate a biosand filter for household use.
If you are considering using a biosand filter in your community, I would recommend taking a look at it and printing it off (if you can). It is open source so you can photocopy it, give it to others and modify it if needed.
I don't think it is the cost of making the actual filters that is very expensive. Nor do I think they are 'huge' costs. It is labour (which you can often get people to offer), sand, gravel and cement. However, it is the making of the mould that CAN be relatively expensive, but this varies from country to country and what the mould is made of. With that being said though, if the mould is made of materials such as steel, it can be used hundreds if not thousands of times, making the mould a one-time cost that is recoverable.
The Biosand filter is an innovation on traditional slow sand water filters, specifically designed for intermittent or household use. The filter can be produced locally anywhere in the world because it is built using materials that are readily available. It is simply a concrete container, enclosing layers of sand and gravel which trap and eliminate sediments, pathogens and other impurities from the water.
Plastic can also be used to manufacture the container, however, using concrete has several advantages:Biosand Filter
* Cement can be easily acquired in most developing countries.
The World Health Organization has compiled training materials which includes 23 sessions. Each presentation in the materials includes a session plan, a background paper and overhead transparencies. Each practical session provides guidance as to how such sessions might be delivered and the materials required. The training materials can be downloaded from the WHO site from this link:
WaterAid works in 17 countries around the world providing sanitation and hygiene education.
Watercan is a Canadian charity dedicated to ending poverty by helpin the world's poorest people gain access to clean water, basic sanitation, hygiene education.
They work mainly in Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.
This site provides information and resources on water and sanitation.
This site provides information and resources on water, sanitation and the environment with specific focus on children.
This site provides a number of resources and information on water, health and sanitation.
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